Autonomous Rail Rapid Transit (ART) - track and wireless tram

Autonomous Rail Rapid Transit (ART) - track and wireless tram

The China Railway Research and Development Corporation (CRRC) has introduced the autonomous guided, track- and wireless tram, a major advance in the design and technology known as Autonomous Rapid Transit (ART), a LiDAR-guided articulated bus system for urban passenger transport. It was developed by CRRC Zhuzhou Institute Co Ltd and was unveiled in 2017 in Zhuzhou, Huan Province. The product was described as a cross between a bus and a tram, commonly referred to as a "tram  without tracks". Although the system is described as "autonomous" in English, all models produced so far have a steering wheel with a driver's position.

The cost of installation is significantly lower, as it is not necessary to install the tram on the road surface. The "tram" follows a painted dashed line that it tracks using optical, LiDAR, radar and GPS technology. The vehicles run on rubber tires, are bi-directional and multi-car, and have safety features and communication technologies that contribute to fleet management and ride quality.

The ART is powered by lithium-titanate betteries and can travel a distance of 40 km (25 miles) per full charge. The batteries can be recharged via current collectors at stations. The recharging time for a 3 to 5 km (1.9 to 3.1 mi) trip is 30 seconds and for a 25 km (16 mi) trip, 10 minutes.

A three-car ART bus can travel at a speed of 70 km/h (43 mph) and can carry up to 300 passengers.